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22. Popups

Popup is not an object class. In contrast to normal objects popups are only shown for a short time in their own window and, while they are shown, no interaction with other objects is possible. So they don't fit directly into the normal event loop where one waits for user actions via fl_do_forms(). Instead, when used stand-alone (e.g., for a context menu) they are shown on a call of the function fl_popup_do(), which returns when the the user is done with the popup and it has been removed from the screen. Only idle callbacks and timers etc. are executed in the background while a popup is being shown.

Popups are the building blocks for menu and selector objects, which internally create and use popups. Thus it might be helpful to understand how popups work to get the most out of these objects.

All functions dealing with popups have names starting with 'fl_popup_', functions for individual entries start with 'fl_popup_entry_' and typedefs as well as macros with 'FL_POPUP_'.

22.1 Adding Popups

There are two ways to create and populate a popup with entries. The first method, that allows more fine-grained control consists of first generating a popup and then adding entries. Using this method all the properties of entries can be set immediately. The second method, to be discussed later, is simpler and may be sufficient for many applications, and internally uses the first method.

To define a new popup using the more general interface call

FL_POPUP *fl_popup_add(Window win, const char *title);

The function returns the address of the new popup on success and NULL on failure. win is the window of a parent object (use FL_ObjWin() to find out about it). You can also use fl_root for the root window, with None having the same effect . title is an optional string that gets shown at the top of the popup in a framed box. If not wanted pass an empty string or NULL. The function returns a pointer to a new popup or NULL on failure.

The title may contain embedded newline characters, this allows to create titles that span more than one line.)

There is no built-in limit to the number of popups that can be created.

Once you have popup you may add one or more entries by using

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_add_entries(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                     const char *entries, ...);

On success the return value is the address of the first entry created and NULL on failure. The first argument, entries, is a pointer to the popup the new entry (or entries) is added to. The second argument, entries, encodes information about the entries to add. In the most simple case it consists just of the entries texts, separated by | characters, e.g., "Item 1|Item 2|Item 3". This would create three simple entries in the popup with labels "Item 1", "Item 2" and "Item 3".

The entries string may contain newline characters which allows to create entries that span more than a single line.

There's no built-in limit to the number of entries than be added to a popup. fl_popup_add_entries() can be called repeatedly to append further entries to a popup.

It often is necessary to have more complex entries. E.g., one may want to have keyboard shortcuts for entries, which are shown on the right hand side of an entry, one may want to have sub-popups or set callbacks etc. This can be achieved by embedding special character sequences within the string describing the entries and passing further arguments to the function, similar to the use of a format string in e.g., printf(3). All special sequences start with a %.

The following sequences are recognized:


Set a value of type long int that's passed to all callback routines for the entry. The value must be given in the arguments following the entries string.


Set a user_void pointer that's passed to all callbacks of the entry. The pointer must be specified in the arguments following the entries string.


Set a callback function that gets called when the entry is selected. The function is of type

int callback(FL_POPUP_RETURN *r);

Information about the entry etc. gets passed to the callback function via the FL_POPUP_RETURN structure (see below) and the return value of the function can be used to keep the selection being reported back to the caller of fl_popup_do() by returning a value of FL_IGNORE (-1). The functions address must be given in the arguments following the entries string.


Set a callback routine that gets called each time the mouse enters the entry (as long as the entry isn't disabled or hidden). The type of the function is the same as that of the callback function for the selection of the item but it's return value is never used. The functions address must be given in the arguments following the entries string.


Set a callback routine that gets called each time the mouse leaves the entry. The type of the function is the same as that of the callback function for the selection of the entry but it's return value is never used. The functions address must be given in the arguments following the entries string.


When this is specified a sub-popup gets opened when the mouse enters the entry (the entry itself thus can't be selected). The sub-popup to be opened must be an already existing popup and its address must be given in the arguments following the entries string. A triangle will be drawn on the right of the entry to indicate that it's an entry for a sub-popup.

Mutually exclusive with %t, %T, %r, %R and %l.


This makes the entry a "toggle" entry, an entry that represents binary states and gets a check-mark drawn on its left if in "on" state. If created with %t its in "off" state at the start, if created with "T" its in "on" state. Switching states happens automatically when the entry is selected.

Mutually exclusive with %m, %r, %R and %l.


This makes the entry a "radio" entry, i.e., it becomes part of a group of entries of which only one can be "on" at a time. The group, an integer value (don't use INT_MIN and INT_MIN), must be given in the arguments following the entries string.

Radio entries are drawn with a small circle to the left, with the one for the entry in "on" state filled with a color (blue per default). When a radio entry is selected by the user that was in "off" state the entry of the group that was is "on" state before is automatically switched to "off" state.

If the entry gets created with %r the entry is in "off" state, if created with %R it's in "on" state (in that case all entries created before in "on" state are reset to "off" state, i.e., the one created last "wins").

Mutually exclusive with %m, %t, %T and %l.


This creates not a real entry but indicates that a line is to be drawn to visually group other entries. While other properties can be set for such an "entry" only the "hidden" property (see below) is taken into acount.

Mutually exclusive with %m, %t, %T, % and %R.


Marks the entry as disabled, i.e., it can't be selected and its text is per default drawn in a different color


Marks the entry as hidden, i.e., it is not shown while in this state.


For entries with shortcut keys it's quite common to have them shown on the right hand side. Using %S you can split the entrys text into two parts, the first one (before %S) being drawn flushed left and the second part flushed right. Note that using this special sequence doesn't automatically sets a shortcut key, this still has to be done using %s.


Sets one or more shortcut keys for an entry. Requires a string with the shortcuts in the arguments following the entries string, see section Shortcuts for details on how to define shortcuts. Please note that the character in the label identical to the shortcut character is only shown as underlined if %S isn't used.


Use this to put a % character within the text of an entry.

Please note that since fl_popup_add_entries() is a variadic function (i.e., it takes a variable number of arguments) only very limited error checking is possible and thus it is of importance that the arguments passed to the function have exactly the required types!

The return value of fl_popup_add_entries() is a pointer to the first of the entries created. Since entries are stored as a linked list this value can be used to iterate over the list (see below for more information about the FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure). If the function returns NULL no entries were created.

A typical piece of code creating a popup may look like this:

int save_cb(FL_POPUP_RETURN *result) {

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
   FL_POPUP *popup;
   File *fp;


   popup = fl_popup_add(None, NULL);
                        "Work Offline%SCtrl+O%T%s",
                        "^S", save_cb, (void *) fp,

This creates a popup with three entries. The first one has the label "Save" shown at the left and "Ctrl+S" at the right can be selected by pressing <Ctrl>S, in which case the function save_cb() will be invoked with a pointer to a structure that, beside other informations, contains the file pointer fp. The second entry has the labels "Quit" and "Esc" and it's shortcut key is set to <Esc>. Below this entry a separator line is drawn, followed by the third entry with labels "Work Offline" and "Ctrl+O" and shortcut key <Ctrl>O. This label is a "toggle" entry in "on" state, thus a check-marker is shown beside it.

A few remarks about the callback routines. All have a type of FL_POPUP_CB as given by this typedef:

typedef int (*FL_POPUP_CB)(FL_POPUP_RETURN *);

There are three kinds of callbacks, all with the same type. Whenever an item is entered (by moving the mouse on top of it or with the keyboard) its enter callback function is invoked (if one is set). Exceptions are entries that are disabled or hidden or entries, that just stand for separator lines. When an entry that can receive enter callbacks is left, its leave callback is invoked.

Leave callbacks are not called when a selection has been made. Instead, only the selection callback for the selected entry is invoked.

A "sub-popup entry", i.e., an entry that when entered results in a sub-popup to open, also can have an enter callback. Its leave callback is not called when the user moves the mouse onto the sub-popup but only once the sub-popup has been closed again and the mouse has been moved off the sub-popup entry.

While enter and leave callback functions are defined to return an integer value, it's never used. But for the third kind of callback, invoked on selection of an entry, this isn't true. Instead, the callbacks return value is important: if it is FL_IGNORE (-1), the selection isn't reported back to the caller (and following callbacks also aren't called). This can be useful when the callback function already does everything required and nothing is left to be done.

All callbacks receive a pointer to a structure of the type FL_POPUP_RETURN:

typedef struct {
    long int              val;       /* value assigned to entry */
    void                 *user_data; /* pointer to user data */
    const char           *text;      /* text of selected popup entry */
    const char           *label;     /* text drawn on left */        
    const char           *accel;     /* text drawn on right */
    const FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry;     /* selected popup entry */
    const FL_POPUP       *popup;     /* (sub-) popup it belongs to */

val is the value set by "%x". If "%x" wasn't given, it's an automatically generated value: when a popup is created with fl_popup_add_entries() a counter is initalized to 0. Whenever an entry gets added the value of the counter is assigned to the entry and then incremented. Unless a different value is set explicitely via "%x" the first entry added to a popup thus gets a value val of 0, the second one gets 1 etc. This even holds for entries that just stand for separator lines. In simple situations the value of val is probably sufficient to identify which entry got selected.

Please note: it is possible that by setting the val members two or more structures for items of the same popup get the same value. It is the programmers responsibility to avoid that (unless, of course, that's just what you intended).

The user_data member of the structure is the user_void pointer set via "%u". It allows to pass more complex data to the callback function (or have returned on selection of an entry.

The text member is exactly the string used to create the entry, including all the special sequences starting with '%'. label is what's left after all those sequences as well as backspace characters have been removed, tabs replaced by single spaces and the string is split at "%S". I.e., it's exactly what's drawn left-flushed for the entry in the popup. accel is then what's left after clean-up and came after "%S", i.e., it's what appears as the right-flushed text of the entry. Please note that one or more of these pointers could under some circumstances be NULL.

Finally, the two member entry and popup are pointers to the entry itself and the popup the callback function is invoked for - to find out the popup the selected entry itself belongs to use the popup member of the entrys FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure.

Please note: while in a callback you are only allowed to change the values of the val and user_data members. This can be useful in the case of a cascade of selection callback calls since all the selection callbacks receive the same structure (and this is also the structure that finally gets passed back to the caller of fl_popup_do()) at the end in order to implement more complex information interchange between the callbacks involved.

The elements of a FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure that might be of interest) are

typedef {
    FL_POPUP_ENTRY *prev;    /* previous popup entry */
    FL_POPUP_ENTRY *next;    /* next popup entry */
    int             type;    /* normal, toggle, radio, sub-popup, line*/
    unsigned int    state;   /* disabled, hidden, checked */
    int             group;   /* group (for radio entries only) */
    FL_POPUP       *sub;     /* sub-popup bound to entry */

Note that you should not change the members of a FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure directly! Use the appropriate functions documented below to modify them instead.

prev and next are pointers to the previous and the following popup entry (or NULL if none exists).

type tells what kind of popup entry this is. There are five different types:


Normal popup entry with no special properties


"Toggle" or "binary" entry, drawn with a check-mark to its left if in "on" state


Radio entry, drawn with a circle to its left (color-filled when "on". The group member of the FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure determines to which group the entry belongs.


Entry for a sub-popup. The sub member of its FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure is a pointer to the sub-popup that gets shown when the mouse enters the entry.


Not a "real" entry, just indicates that a separator line is to be drawn between the previous and the next entry.

Finally, the state member can have the following values:


No special state is set for the entry, the default.


The entry is disabled, i.e., isn't selectable (and normally is drawn in a way to indicate this).


The entry is not drawn at all (and thus can't be selected).


Only relevant for toggle and radio entries. Indicates that the state of a toggle entry is "on" (drawn with a check-marker) and for a radio entry that it is the one in "on" state of its group.

The state can be a combination of the above constants by using a bitwise OR.

The more interesting members of a FL_POPUP structure are

typedef struct {
    FL_POPUP       *next;        /* previously created popup */
    FL_POPUP       *prev;        /* later created popup */
    FL_POPUP       *parent;      /* for sub-popups: direct parent */
    FL_POPUP       *top_parent;  /* and top-most parent */
    Window          win;         /* window of the popup */
    FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entries;     /* pointer to list of entries */
    char           *title;       /* title string of the popup */

Note again that you are not supposed to change the members of the structure.

Like popup entries also popups are stored in a (doubly) linked list. Thus the prev and next members of the structure are pointers to popups created earlier or later. If a popup is a sub-popup of another popup then parent points to the next higher level popup (otherwise it's NULL). In case there's a cascade of popups the top_parent member points to the "root" popup (i.e., the top-level popup), while for popups that aren't sub-popups it always points back to the popup itself (in that case parent is NULL).

win is the window created for the popup. It's None (0) while the popup isn't shown, so it can be used to check if the popup is currently visible.

The entries member points to the first element of the list of entries of the popup. See the FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure documented above on how to iterate over all entries.

Finally, title is the title shown at the top of the popup (if one is set). Never try to change it directly, there ars the functions fl_popup_set_title() and fl_popup_set_title_f(), described below, to do just that.

To remove a popup entry use

int fl_popup_entry_delete(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry);

The function return 0 on success and -1 if it failed for some reasons. Note that the function for a sub-popup entry also deletes the popup that was associated with the entry!

You may also insert one or more entries into a popup at arbitrary places using

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_insert_entries(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                        FL_POPUP_ENTRY *after,
                                        const char *entries, ...);

popup is the popup the entries are to be inserted in, after is the entry after which the new entries are to be added (use NULL if the new entries are to be inserted at the very first position), and entries is the same kind if string as already used in fl_popup_add_entries(), including all the available special sequences. The arguments indicated by ... have to be given according to the entries string.

Finally, when you don't need a popup anymore simply call

int fl_popup_delete(FL_POPUP *popup);

The function returns 0 on success and -1 on failure. It's not possible to call the function while the popup is still visible on the screen. Calling it from any callback function is problematic unless you know for sure that the popup to be deleted (and sub-popups of it) won't be used later and thus normally should be avoided.

Above was described how to first generate a popup and then populate it. But there's also a (though less general) method to create and populate a popup in a single function call. For this use

FL_POPUP *fl_popup_create(Window win, const char *title,
                          FL_POPUP_ITEM *items);

The win and title arguments are the same as used in fl_popup_add(), i.e., they are parent window for the popup (or fl_root or None) and the (optional, can be NULL) title for the popup.

items is a pointer to an array of structures of the following form:

typedef struct {
    const char  *text;        /* text of entry */
    FL_POPUP_CB  callback;    /* (selection) callback */
    const char  *shortcut;    /* keyboard shortcut description */
    int          type;        /* type of entry */
    int          state;       /* disabled, hidden, checked */

The array must contain one structure for each entry of the popup and must end in a structure where at least the text member is set to NULL.

The text member describes the text of the entry. If it contains the string "%S" the text is split up at this position and the first part is used as the label drawn left-flushed for the entry and the second part for the right-flushed part (for showing accelerator keys etc.). Two more characters have a special meaning if they appear at the very start of the string (and which then do not become part of the label shown):


Draw a separator line above this entry.


This entry is a sub-popup entry and the following elements of the items array (until the first element with text set to NULL define the entries of the sub-popup.

Both '_' and '/' can appear at the start of the string, it doesn't matter which one comes first.

The callback member is a function to be invoked when the entry is selected (irrelevant for sub-popup entries). shortcut is a string, encoding which keyboard shortcut keys can be used to select the item (see section Shortcuts for details on how such a string has to be assembled).

type describes the type of the entry and must be one of FL_POPUP_NORMAL, FL_POPUP_RADIO (all radio entries automatically belong to the same group (numbered INT_MIN). You can't use FL_POPUP_LINE or FL_POPUP_SUB. If you want a sub-popup entry use FL_POPUP_NORMAL and set '/' as the first character of the text member of the structure. If you need a separator line put a '_' at the start of the text member string of the entry which comes after the separator line.

Finally, the state member can be 0 or the bitwise or of FL_POPUP_DISABLED, FL_POPUP_HIDDEN and FL_POPUP_CHECKED. The first one makes the entry appear disabled and non-selectable, the second will keep the entry from being drawn at all, and the third one puts the entry into "on" state (relevant for toggle and radio entries only). If you try to set FL_POPUP_CHECKED for more than a single radio entry the last one you set if for "wins", i.e., only this one will be in "on" state. See below for a more detailed discussion of these entry properties.

fl_popup_create() does not allow to associate values or pointers to user data to individual entries, set titles for sub-popups, have radio entries belong to different groups or set enter or leave callback functions (though there exist a number of functions to remedy the situation in case such things are needed).

The function returns a pointer to the newly created popup (or NULL on failure). You are guaranteed that each entry has been assigned a unique value, starting at 0 and which is identical to the index of corresponding element in the items array, i.e., the first element results in an entry assigned 0, the second entry gets 1 etc.

All functions working on popups or entries can, of course, be used on popups and their entries generated via fl_popup_create(). They can be employed to remedy some of the limitations imposed by the simpler popup creation API.

Here's an example of how to create a popup using fl_popup_create():

FL_POPUP *popup;

FL_POPUP_ITEMS items[] = {
  {"Item 1%S^1", NULL, "^1", FL_POPUP_NORMAL, FL_POPUP_NONE    },
  {"Item 2%S^2", NULL, "^2", FL_POPUP_RADIO,  FL_POPUP_CHECKED },
  {"Item 3%S^3", NULL, "^3", FL_POPUP_RADIO,  FL_POPUP_NONE    },
    {"Sub-item A",  cbA, "^A", FL_POPUP_NORMAL, FL_POPUP_DISABLED},
    {"Sub-item B",  cbB, "^B", FL_POPUP_TOGGLE, FL_POPUP_NONE    },
    {NULL,         NULL, NULL, 0,               0                },
  {NULL,         NULL, NULL, 0,               FL_POPUP_NONE    }

popup = fl_popup_create(None, "Test", items);

This creates a new popup with the title "Test" and 5 entries as well as a a sub-popup with two entries, that gets opened when the mouse is over the entry labeled "Item 4".

The first entry in the main popup has the label "Item 1" on the left and "^1" of the right side. It has no callback routine and can be selected via the <Crtl>1 shortcut. It's just a normal menu entry.

The second entry has the label "Item 2" on the left and "^2" of the right side, also no callack and <Crtl>2 as its keyboard shortcut. It's a radio entry that is in "on" state. The third entry is like the second, labels are "Item 3" and "^3" and it reacts to <Crtl>3, except that it's in "off" state. The second and third label belong to the same group (with the group number set to INT_MIN), i.e., when the third entry gets selected the second one gets switched to "off" state (and vice versa).

Before the fourth entry a separator line will be drawn (that's the effect of its text starting with '_'. It's a sub-popup entry (due to the '/' at the start of its text). It's label is simply "Item 4" and no right hand label (but that isn't supposed to indicate that sub-entries couldn't have shortcuts!). It has no selection callback (which wouldn't sense make sense for a sub-popup entry anyway).

The following three elements of the items array are for the sub-popup that gets opened when the mouse is over the fourth item of the main popup. In the sub-popup we first have an normal entry with label "Sub-item A". The function cbA() will be called when this entry of the sub-popup is selected. Then we have a second entry, labled "Sub-item B", which is a currently disabled toggle entry in "off" state. If it weren't disabled its selection would result in the callback function cbB() getting called. The next element of the items array, having NULL as its text member, signifies the end of the sub-popup.

Now that we're done with the sub-popup another entry in the main popup follows, a normal entry with just a left-label of Item 5. The final element of items, where text is set to NULL then signifies that this is the end of the popup.

As there are functions to append to and insert entries into a popup with a kind of format string, followed by a variable list of arguments, there are also functions for adding and inserting entries using an array of FL_POPUP_ITEM. These are

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_add_items(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                   FL_POPUP_ITEM *items);
FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_insert_items(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                      FL_POPUP_ENTRY *after,
                                      FL_POPUP_ITEM  *items);

Both functions return the address of the first entry created on success and NULL on error. The first argument is the popup the entries are to be appended to or inserted into, the last argument the array of items (as in the case of fl_popup_create() at least the text member of the last element must be a NULL pointer to indicate the end). fl_popup_insert_items() takes another argument, after, the entry after which the new entries are to be inserted (if called with after set to NULL the new entries are inserted at the very start of the popup).

22.2 Popup Interaction

A popup will be drawn on the screen when the function

FL_POPUP_RETURN *fl_popup_do(FL_POPUP *popup);

is called. It only returns when the user either selects an entry or closes it in some other way (e.g., by clicking outside the popup's area). When a selection was made the function returns a pointer to a FL_POPUP_RETURN structure with information about the entry that was selected (please note that the structure is internal storage belonging to the Forms Library and is re-used when the popup is shown again, so copy out all data you may need to keep). If no selection was made (or one of the invoked callback routines returned a value of FL_IGNORE (-1) NULL is returned.

While the popup is shown the user can interact with the popup using the mouse or the keyboard. When the mouse is hovering over a selectable entry of the popup the entry is highlighted, when the mouse reaches an entry for a sub-popup, the associated sub-popup automatically gets opened. A selection is made by clicking on an entry (or, in case that the popup was opened while a mouse button was pressed down, when the mouse button is released). Clicking outside the popups window (or, depending on the "policy", see below, releasing the mouse button somewhere else than over a selectable item) closes the popup without a selection being made.

Popups also can be controlled via the keyboard. First of all, on pressing a key, the shortcuts set for items are evaluated and, if a match is found, the corresponding entry is returned as selected (if the popup currently shown is a sub-popup, first the shortcuts for this sub-popup are checked, then those of its parent etc. until the top-most popup has been reached and checked for). The user can also navigate through the selectable entires using the <Up> and <Down> arrow keys and open and close sub-popups with the <Right> and <Left> cursor keys. Pressing the <Home> key highlights the first (selectable) entry in the popup, <End> the last one. By using the <Esc> key (or <Cancel> if available) the currently shown popup is closed (if an entry in a sub-popup was highlighted just this sub-popup is closed). Finally, pressing <Return> while on a selectable entry results in this entry being reported as selected.

Once the user has selected an entry its callback function is invoked with a FL_POPUP_RETURN structure as the argument. When this function returns, the callback for the popup the entry belongs to is called with exactly the same structure. If the popup is a sub-popup, next the callback for its "parent" popup is invoked, again with the same structure (except that the popup member is changed each time to indicate which popup the call is made for). Repeat until the callback for the top-most popup has been called. Finally the structure used in all those callback invocations is returned from fl_popup_do(). This chain of callback calls is interrupted when one of the callbacks returns a value of FL_IGNORE (-1). In that case no further callbacks are invoked and fl_popup_do() returns NULL, i.e., from the callers perspective it looks as if no selection has been made. This can be useful when one of the callbacks was already was able to do all the work required on a selection.

Per default a popup stays open when the user releases the mouse button anywhere else than on a selectable entry. It only gets closed when the user either selects an entry or clicks somewhere outside of the popup area. An alternative is a "drag-down" popup that gets closed whenever the mouse button is released, even if the mouse isn't on the area of the popup or a selectable entry. To achieve this effect you can change the "policy" using the function

int fl_popup_set_policy(FL_POPUP *popup, int policy);

There are two values policy can have:


Default, popup stays open until mouse button is released on a selectable entry or button is clicked outside the popups area.


Popup is closed when the mouse button is released anywhere.

The function can be called with either a (valid) popup address, in which case the policy for that popup is changed, or with a NULL pointer to change the default setting of the policy, used in the creation of new popups. The function returns the previous policy value or -1 on errors.

It's also possible to determine the policy setting by using

int fl_popup_get_policy(Fl_POPUP *popup);

If called with the address of a (valid) popup the policy for this popup (or its parent if one exists) gets returned. If called with a NULL pointer the default policy used in creating new popups is returned. On error -1gets returned.

Calling the function with NULL as the popup argument changes the default setting for the popups created afterwards.

If the popup is partially off-screen the user can push the mouse at the screen borders in the direction of the currently invisible popup entries. This results in the popups window getting moved so that previosuly invisible entries become accessible. The popup window gets shifted vertically in single entry steps, in horizontal direction by a tenth of the screen width. The delay between shifts is about 100 ms.

22.3 Other Popup Routines

When fl_popup_do() is called the popup per default is shown with its left upper corner at the mouse position (unless the popup wouldn't fit onto the screen). Using

void fl_popup_set_position(FL_POPUP *popup, int x, int y);

the position where the popup is drawn can be changed (but if it wouldn't fit onto the screen at that position it will also changed automatically). x and y. to be given relative to the root window, define the position of the upper left hand corner. Using this function for sub-popups is useless, they always get opened as near as possible to the corresponding sub-popup entry.

When setting the position of a popup it can be useful to know the exact sizes of its window in advance. These can be obtained by calling

int fl_popup_get_size(FL_POPUP *popup, unsigned int *w, unsigned int

The function returns 0 on success and -1 on error (in case the supplied popup argument isn't valid). Please note that the reported values are only valid until the popup is changed, e.g., by adding, deleting or changing entries or changing the appearance of the popup.

A callback function cb() of type FL_POPUP_CB, to be called when a entry (or an entry of a sub-popup) is selected, can be associated with a popup (or changed) using

typedef int (*FL_POPUP_CB)(FL_POPUP_RETURN *);
FL_POPUP_CB fl_popup_set_callback(FL_POPUP *popup, FL_POPUP_CB cb);

The function returns the old setting of the callback routine (on error NULL is returned, which may indistinguishable from the case that no callback was set before).

For an entry all three associated callback functions can be set via

FL_POPUP_CB fl_popup_entry_set_callback(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                        FL_POPUP_CB cb);
FL_POPUP_CB fl_popup_entry_set_enter_callback(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                              FL_POPUP_CB enter_cb)
FL_POPUP_CB fl_popup_entry_set_leave_callback(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                              FL_POPUP_CB leave_cb);

The first function sets the callback invoked when the entry is selected, the second when the mouse enters the area of the entry and the third, when the mouse leaves that area. All function return the previously set callback or NULL when none was set or an error occured. NULL also gets returned on errors.

There are three properties that can be set for a popup entry


The entry is is shown as disabled and can't be selected.


The entry is not shown when the popup is opened.


Relevant only for toggle and redio entries. When set beside the label of a toggle entry a check-marker is drawn while the circle beside a radio button is drawn colored.

The "state" of an entry is the binary OR of these values which can be set and queried using the functions

unsigned int fl_popup_entry_set_state(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                      unsigned int state);
unsigned int fl_popup_entry_get_state(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry);

fl_popup_entry_set_state() returns the previous state on success and UINT_MAX (a value with all bits set) on failure.

Note that when setting FL_POPUP_CHECKED for a radio entry all other radio entries belonging to the same group automatically lose their "on" (checked) property.

There are also three convenience function for clearing, raising and toggling bits in the state of an entry. Normally to clear a certain bit of the state you have to first call fl_popup_entry_get_state(), then clear the bit in the return value and finally call fl_popup_entry_set_state() with the result to set the new state. Use of these convenience functions allows to change state bits in a single call.

unsigned int fl_popup_entry_clear_state(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                        unsigned int what);
unsigned int fl_popup_entry_raise_state(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                        unsigned int what);
unsigned int fl_popup_entry_toggle_state(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                         unsigned int what);

The what argument can be any value resulting from a bitwise OR of FL_POPUP_DISABLED, FL_POPUP_HIDDEN and FL_POPUP_CHECKED (thus you can clear, set or toggle one or more bits of the state in a single call). The functions all return the original value of the state.

You may search for an entry in a popup by different criteria (please note that the search also includes sub-popups of the popup, you can identify them by checking the popup member of the FL_POPUP_ENTRY structure). The search obviously will only deliver reasonable results if what you're searching for is unique between all the entries.

First, you can ask for the entry that had been created with a certain text, including all the special sequences, by calling

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_text(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                           const char *text);
FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_text_f(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                             const char *fmt, ...);

The functions returns either a pointer to the entry found or NULL on failure (because either no entry with this text was found or the popup doesn't exist). (The functions differ in that the first one accepts just a simple string while the second assembles the text from a format string, just as it's used for printf() etc., and an appropriate number of following arguments.)

You may as well search by the left-flushed label parts of the entries as shown on the screen (note that tab characters '\t' originally embedded in the text used when creating the label have been replaced by single spaces and backspace characters '\b' were removed as well as all special sequences)

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_label(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                            const char *label);
FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_label_f(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                              const char *fmt, ...);

Thus, since an entry created via a string like "I\bt%Tem\t1%SCtrl+X" will shown with a left-flushed label part of "Item 1", this will be found when searching with either this string or a format string fo e.g., "Item %d" and a following integer argument of 1.

Another way to search for an entry is by its value as either specified via the "%x" special sequence or assigned automatically by

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_value(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                            long value);

Also the user_data pointer associated with the entry can be used as the search criterion:

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_user_data(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                                void *user_data);

Finally one can try to find an entry by its current position in the popup (note that here sub-popups aren't taken into consideration since that would make the meaning of "position" rather hard to define) by

FL_POPUP_ENTRY *fl_popup_entry_get_by_position(FL_POPUP *popup,
                                               long position);

where posistion is starting with 0, so when called with 0 the first entry will be returned, when called with 1 you get the second entry etc. Note that separator lines aren't counted but entries currently being hidden are.

22.4 Popup Attributes


void fl_popup_set_title(FL_POPUP *popup, const char *title);
void fl_popup_set_title_f(FL_POPUP *popup, const char *fmt, ...);
const char *fl_popup_set_title(FL_POPUP *popup);

the title of a popup can be changed or the currently set title determined. (The two functions for setting the title are just different in the way the title is passed: the first one receives a simple string while the second one assembles the title from a format string just like the one used with printf() etc. and an appropriate number of following arguments.)

To query or set the font the popups title is drawn in use

void fl_popup_get_title_font(FL_POPUP *popup, int *size, int *style);
void fl_popup_set_title_font(FL_POPUP *popup, int size, int style);

See section Label Attributes and Fonts, for details about the sizes and styles that should be used. The default size and style are FL_NORMAL_SIZE and FL_EMBOSSED_STYLE. This setting also applies to sub-popups of the popup, thus setting a title font for sub-popups is useless.

When called with the popup argument set to NULL the default settings for popups generated later are returned or set.

Also the font for the entries of a popup can be queried or and set via

void fl_popup_entry_get_font(FL_POPUP *popup, int *style, int *size);
void fl_popup_entry_set_font(FL_POPUP *popup, int style, int size);

The defalt size is FL_NORMAL_SIZE and the default style is FL_NORMAL_STYLE. Again, the returned or set values also apply to all sub-popups, so calling the function for sub-popups doesn't make sense.

When called with popup set to NULL the default settings for popups are returned or changed.

The width of a popup is calculated using the widths of the title and the entries. You can influence this width by setting a minimum width a popup should have. There are two functions for the minimum width:

int fl_popup_get_min_width(FL_POPUP *popup);
int fl_popup_set_min_width(FL_POPUP *popup, int min_width);

The first one returns the currently set minimum width (a negative return value indicates an error). The second allows sets a new minimum width. Setting the minimum width to 0 or a negative value switches the use of the minimum width off. It returns the previous value (or a negative value on error).

You can query or set the border width popups are drawn width (per default it's set to 1). To this purpose call

int fl_popup_get_bw(FL_POPUP *popup);
int fl_popup_set_bw(FL_POPUP *popup, int bw);

Please note that the border width setting is automatically applied also to sub-popups, so there's no good reason to call these functions for sub-popups. The default border width is the same as that for objects.

The functions can also be called with popup set to NULL in which case the default setting for the border width is returned or set, respectively.

To change the cursor that is displayed when a popup is shown use

void fl_popup_set_cursor(FL_POPUP *popup, int cursor_name);

Use one of the symbolic cursor names (shapes) defined by standard X or the integer value returned by fl_create_bitmap_cursor() or one of the Forms Library's pre-defined symbolic names for the cursor_name argument.

Per default the cursor named "XC_sb_right_arrow" is used. If the function is called with popup set to NULL the default cursor for popups generated afterwards is changed.

There are several colors used in drawing a popup. These can be set or queried with the functions

FL_COLOR fl_popup_set_color(FL_POPUP *popup, int type,
                            FL_COLOR color);
FL_COLOR fl_popup_get_color(FL_POPUP *popup, int type);

where type can be one of the following values:


Background color of the popup, default is FL_MCOL.


Backgroud color an entry is drawn with when it's selectable and the mouse is on top of it, default is FL_BOTTOM_BCOL.


Color used for the title text of a popup, default is FL_BLACK.


Color normal used for entry texts, default is FL_BLACK.


Color of the entry text when it's selectable and the mouse is on top of it, default is FL_WHITE.


Color for drawing the text of disabled entries, default is FL_INACTIVE_COL.


Color the circle drawn for radio entris in "on" state is drawn in.

When setting a new color the color previously used is returned by fl_popup_set_color(). Calling these functions for sub-popups doesn't make sense since sub-popups are always drawn in the colors set for the parent popup.

When called with popup set to NULL the functions return or set the default colors of popups created afterwards.

To change the text of a popup entry call

int fl_popup_entry_set_text(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry, const char *text);

Please note that in the text no special sequences except "%S" (at which place the text is split to make up the left- and right-flushed part of the label drawn) are recognized.

The shortcut keys for a popup label can be changed using

void fl_popup_entry_set_shortcut(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                 const char *shortcuts);

See section Shortcuts, for details on how such a string has to look like.

The value assigned to a popup entry can be changed via

long fl_popup_entry_set_value(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry, long value);

The function returns the previous value.

Also the user data pointer associated with a popup entry can be modified by calling

void *fl_popup_entry_set_user_data(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                   void *user_data);

The function returns the previous setting of user_data.

To determine to which group a radio entry belongs call

int fl_popup_entry_get_group(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry);

Obviously, this function only makes much sense when applied to radio entries. It returns the group number on success and INT_MAX on failure (that's why INT_MAX shouldn't be used for group numbers).

To assign a radio entry to a different group call

int fl_popup_entry_set_group(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry, int group);

Again, for obvious reasons, the function should normally only be called for radio entries. It returns the previous group number on success and INT_MAX on failure. If one of the entries of the new group was in "on" state the entries state will be reset to "off" if necessary.

For entries other than radio entries the group isn't used at all. So, theoretically, it could be used to store a bit of additional information. If that would be good programming practice is another question...

Finally, the sub-popup associated with a sub-popup-entry can be queried or changed using the functions

FL_POPUP *fl_popup_entry_get_subpopup(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry);
FL_POPUP *fl_popup_entry_get_subpopup(FL_POPUP_ENTRY *entry,
                                      FL_POPUP *subpopup);

Obviously, calling these functions only makes sense for sub-popup entries.

fl_popup_entry_get_subpopup() returns the address of the sub-popup associated with the entry or NULL on failure.

To change the sub-popup of an entry a valid sub-popup must be passed to fl_popup_entry_set_subpopup(), i.e., the sub-popup must not already be a sub-popup of another entry or the popup the entry belongs to itself. You also can't set a new sub-popup while the old sub-popup associated with the entry or the popup to become the new sub-popup is shown. On success the address of the new sub-popup is returned, on failure NULL.

Note that this function deletes the old sub-popup that was associated with the popup.

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